This faction of the CDG owes its origins to Los Zetas, for it is a prominent Zetas figure from which they gain their name.
Los Talibanes are a subset of the Cártel del Golfo currently operating in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, but it wasn't always this way.
Originally founded as the loyalists of a man known as El Talibán, aka Z-50, whom is suspected to have been given his alias by the fact that Los Zetas has grown such a reputation for beheading their rivals.
Like Z-40, El Talibán was once a member of Los Lobos of the CDG prior to the Zetas fracture, and got much of his criminal schooling from this organization and in Nuevo Laredo where he was born. During this time he was known as L-50, while Miguel Treviño was known as L-40. Los Lobos at the time were widely suspected of being a support group to Los Zetas in Nuevo Laredo, and were made up of members with no military background, while those of military and police backgrounds were assigned to the elite Zetas.
This changed however, when Los Zetas split from the CDG in 2010. It was during this time we saw a great division within Los Lobos as well, with many members deciding to be absorbed into the newly independent Zetas, while others remained with the CDG. (Such as M-28 'El Pelochas' whom used to be known as L-28 and briefly joined the Z's before rejoining the CDG.)
L-40, his brother L-42, and L-50 were such individuals who joined Los Zetas and became Z-40, Z-42 and Z-50 respectively.
Despite lacking military training, Z-50 rose rapidly through the ranks to become a major player in Los Zetas. Reportedly commanding hundreds of men in the state of Zacatecas on behalf of then-leader of the Z's, Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano, aka Z-3.
This was an important time for the organization. Los Zetas wielded great strength in Mexico, and while Z-3 was their official leader, many speculated that Z-40 was the one who actually held the greatest respects of the troops. He was known to ride into battle with his men and to operate frequently on the frontlines, commanding great respect and fear from his subordinates.
As a result of this, he became an unspoken contender to Z-3's leadership. When Z-3 was killed by the Mexican military, he declared himself head of the Cártel.
This didn't sit right with Z-50 however, whom had long distrusted Z-40 and considered him a traitor. Even so much as blaming Z-40 for selling out 'El Mamito', aka Z-7 to the authorities to be extradited. He pushed back, and his loyalists began to engage in a war of attrition with Z-40's men which saw bodies being dumped regularly upon street corners or sometimes dismembered and stuffed into the back of SUV's. Z-50's goons took on many names, starting with that of Sangre Z. But after his arrest other groups such as Los Legionarios and Los Hijos del Diablo would continue his struggle.
Z-50's following was reportedly lesser than Z-40's despite commanding great strength all his own, and he eventually conceded to enlist the aid of other organizations which sought for Z-40's demise.
These became known as the Cárteles Unidos, a coalition of Sinaloa, Knight's Templar and the Gulf Cártel whom were all eager to rid the world of Z-40 and his ilk. El Talibán signed himself and his troops to this coalition as well, and with it rebranded his faction as one of the CDG.
El Talibán was eventually arrested in 2012, but Los Talibanes seems to live on and appears to control much of the drug trade and other criminal practices in the state of Quintana Roo. Not much is heard of them these days, but every once and a while a video or manta signed by them will appear.